What is operating system, its functions, list, and examples

What is operating system, its functions, list, and examples

Operating System (OS) is software that acts as a visual interface between computer components and the user. In fact, you could call it a medium where different parts of the user and computer can communicate.

The operating system is also called system software. Many people also call it “OS” by a short name. Also called the computer heart, the operating system is a software system, which acts as a visual interface between the user and computer hardware.

Let me explain this phrase literally, whenever you use a computer, then this is the only OS that gives you ways to use a computer. Such as listening to a song by clicking on a .mp3 file, double-clicking a word document, opening three or four windows, typing something on the keyboard, and storing certain files on a computer, etc. So you can never do it all. this outside of the operating system.

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What is operating system?

Operating System is a useful software that you use to operate your computer. So, whenever you buy a new computer, you first get Windows 8 or Windows 10 downloaded from a vendor. And then you take your computer or laptop to your home. Otherwise, without an operating system, you will never turn on your computer.

It is also a question of why it is called System Software. If you want to use User Software means Application Software on the computer, then it will not work without OS.

This OS helps to run Computer Hardware efficiently. The operating system basically does the same thing as taking a keyboard input, processing instructions, and sending the output to a computer screen.

You can see this application only when you turn on the computer and turn off the computer. You live inside a computer like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC media player, Photoshop, and much other software, to use them, we need a large program or software called Operating System.

The name of the OS used on Mobile is Android, everyone knows about it. You must already know what an Operating System is, so let us know about some of its functions.

Examples of operating systems

Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here I have shared a list of operating systems, which most people like to use.

  1. Microsoft Windows
  2. Google’s Android OS
  3. Apple iOS
  4. Apple macOS
  5. Linux Operating System

All of these are examples of great apps. Although not many of them are different, most people know these names.

Operating system functions

Although the computer does a lot of work, first, when you turn on the computer, the application starts loading on the main memory means RAM and after that, what Hardware is needed by this using software where hardware is assigned. . Below are the different OS functions, know about it in detail.

1. Memory Management

Memory Management means managing primary and secondary memory. The main memory means that RAM is a very large Bytes system.

This means there are a lot of small spaces in the memory where we can store some data. Where there is an address for each branch. The main memory is the fastest memory used by CPU Direct. Because all CPU-driven programs are in the primary memory only.

The operating system does all these things.

  • What part of the main memory will be used, which will not be, how much it will be, will not be.
  • In most cases, the OS determines which process will be rendered the memory and how much.
  • When the process asks for memory, it provides a memory OS (Process means a task or a little work done inside a computer).
  • When the process completes its task, the OS restores its memory.

2. Processor Management (Process Scheduling)

When it comes to the nature of multiple systems, the OS determines which process will receive the processor and who will not receive it, and for how long.

This process is called Process Planning. The App does all this work.

  • The Application also detects whether the Processor is empty or performing a specific function, or free of charge and the Process has completed its function or not. If you want, you can see in the Task Manager how many tasks are performed and how many are not. The system that makes all this work done, its name is Traffic Controller.
  • CPU assigning process.
  • When the process of one process is complete, then it adds the processor to another function, and releases the processor when nothing is working.

3. Device Management

Drivers are used in your computer, you should know that as a sound driver, Bluetooth driver, graphics driver, wifi driver but they help to drive different input/output device but these drivers run OS.

So let’s see what else this OS does.

  • Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that performs this task is I/O Controller.
  • Just as various processes require devices to perform certain tasks, the OS also performs the task of allocating devices. Let’s take an example, a process has to perform some tasks like playing video, not taking print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of output device monitor, printer. So when both these devices have to be given to the process then the OS does this work.
  • When the process job is finished, it takes the device back.

4. File Management

Lots of documents are stored in a single file. Because with this we can easily get data. So let’s find out what the OS function in File Management is.

  • Keeps information, location and status in order. All of this recognizes the file system.
  • Who will get what service?
  • Resource allocation must be done.

5. Security

When you turn on your computer, it asks for that password, which means the OS is blocking your system from Unauthorized Access. This keeps your computer safe. And you can’t unlock other programs without a password.

6. System Performance

Detects computer performance and improves the system. The OS keeps track of how long it takes to deliver the service.

7. Reporting Error

If a lot of errors are coming into the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.

Creating Synergy between the software and the user

  • Assign a producer, translator and compiler to the task. It connects different software to the user, so that the user can use the software properly.
  • Provides communication between user and application.
  • The operating system is saved in the BIOS. Everything else also makes the app easy to use.

Features of operating system

Now let us know what the operating system features are:

Operating System is a collection of multiple programs, which run other programs.

  1. Controls all input/output devices.
  2. stem is responsible for using all system software.
  3. Process Planning Function means sharing and sharing processes.
  4. It informs you of errors and threats that occur in the system.
  5. Establishes good interaction between user and computer programs.

Types Of Operating System

Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing, so the use of the operating system is increasing across all sectors such as trains, research, satellite, industry, so know how many types of applications are available.

  1. Operating system collection
  2. Simple Collection Application
  3. Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
  4. Network Application
  5. Multiprocessor Operating System
  6. Distributed Operating System
  7. Time-sharing app
  8. Real-Time Operating System

1. Batch Processing Operating System

Collection processing systems were introduced only to overcome the problems of the past. Speaking of previous systems, it means it took more time to set up.
At the same time, the amount of time set aside is reduced by the time it takes for these tasks to be processed in groups. At the same time, this type of operating system is called the batch processing operating system.

In this case, any similar functions are transferred to the CPU for processing and operation simultaneously.

The main function of the Batch Processing System is that they perform batch operations automatically. The most important feature of this function is the ‘Batch Monitor’ which is located at the lower end of the main memory.

i) Simple Batch System

This is an old system where there was no direct interaction between user and computer. In this program, the user had to bring the task or activity to a repository in order to process it and send it to a computer operator.

In this case, all the tasks were assigned to a computer in a set or line. Within a few days or months, the job was processed and the output device became an output store. This program is used to process tasks with batch, hence its name and batch mode.

ii) MultiProgramming Batch Systems

In this application, the task is taken from the head and killed. The OS continues to process the function, if the function requires I / O at the same time, the OS gives the second function to the CPU and I / O to the first, as a result, the CPU is always busy.

The number of tasks in memory is always less than the number of tasks on disk. If multiple tasks remain in line, the app will determine which function will be processed first. The CPU never stays idle in this OS.

The Time-Sharing program is also part of the Multiprogramming system. Response time is very limited in the Time-Sharing System but CPU usage is high in Multi Programming.


  • No direct connection between user and computer.
  • Priority work is the first process, so the user had to wait a long time.

2. Network Operating System

Its abbreviation is NOS, the complete NOS form is “Network Operating System”. This network application provides its services to those computers connected to the network.

When given examples, they include shared file access, shared applications, and print capabilities. NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to simultaneously connect, share files and other hardware resources.

Earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple applications were not designed for single-use and network applications. But as computer networks began to grow slowly and their use increased, so did such programs also begin to develop.

There are mainly two types of NOS (Network Applications): –
Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, installed on all computers. On the other hand, there is the client-server model, where one machine has a server and the other has the client software installed.

Network Application Types

If we talk about the types of Network Operating Systems, then there are two basic types, peer NOS and client/server NOS:

  1. Peer-to-peer network applications allow users to share network resources stored in a virtual, accessible network environment. In this structure, all devices are treated equally according to performance.

Peer-to-peer works best on small to medium LANs and is also much cheaper to set up.

  1. Client network / server applications give users access to all server resources. In its design, all functions and applications are integrated under a single file server that can be used by each client’s actions to perform it, even if it is in any visible location.

The client/server is very difficult to install while requiring a high amount of technical attention. Plus, it costs more.

Its main advantage is that the network is controlled locally so that any changes can be easily made, while additional technology can be re-installed.

3. Multiprocessor System

In a multiprocessor system, most processors use normal physical memory. Computer power is very fast. All of these processors work under one operating system. Here are some of its benefits below


  • The speed is very high because Multiprocessor is used.
  • If multiple operations are processed simultaneously, then system output increases here. That is, how many work processes can be done per second.
  • In this OS, the task is divided into sub-tasks, and each sub-task is assigned a separate processor, and as a result, the task is completed in a very short time.

4. Distributed Operating System

The only purpose of using the Distributed Operating System is that the world has a powerful OS and microprocessors are much cheaper, and communication technology is much more advanced.

As a result of these improvements, the Distributed OS has now been developed, its price is cheaper and it keeps remote computers blocked by the network. Which in itself is a great achievement.


  • All remote resources can be used easily, resources that are not always empty.
  • Processing is fast with them.
  • The load is less on the hosting machine, because the load is distributed.

5. Time Sharing Operating System

In this case, some time is allowed by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task is completed correctly. At the same time, every user uses the same system when time is given to the CPU. This type of system is also called a multitasking system.

At the same time, any work that is done on it can be done by a single user or by multiple users.

The time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, only after completing each task, the OS resumes the next task.


Let us know about the benefits of a time-sharing system.

  • In this case, the OS is given an equal opportunity to complete each task.
  • It is not an easy task to have software duplicity on this. equal.
  • CPU idle time can easily be reduced in this case.


Let us know the disadvantages of a time-sharing system.

The issue of honesty is especially evident in this regard.
In this case, the safety and integrity of the whole thing should be taken care of.
The issue of data communication is a common problem in this regard.
Examples of the time-sharing operating systems are: – Unix

6. Real-Time Operating System

This is the most advanced Advanced Operating System, which performs real-time processing, which means that when you drop an arrow, book a train ticket, satellite, if everything is delayed even for a second, then this app does not stay idle at all.

These are two types,

Hard Real-Time This is an operating system, within the time allotted to complete a task, the task ends immediately.

Real Soft TimeIn the Real Soft Time, punctuality would be minimal, what happens when an activity is active and another task arrives at the same time, and then a new task is given first. This was another information for Operating Systems. Prior to this, you know what an App

What is Client Operating System?

A computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed to perform human-automation tasks. The desktop computer is very different because it does not require any networks or external components to work.

This client application is widely used on desktop computers or portable devices. This application is often different from central servers because it only supports one user.

Cell phones and small computer devices running the client application. This operating system controls device components, including printers, monitors, and cameras. Each computer usually has a specific operating system.

These client applications offer the ability to process them often and at a very low cost. Client operating systems include Windows®, Linux®, Mac®, and Android®.

Each operating system is designed to perform a specific function on specific hardware. This compatibility of hardware is a key consideration based on the operating system selected for client computers.

For example, Windows® is currently the most widely used client operating system.

Q1) Which software is an operating system?

Ans- The operating system is a system of software.

Q2) What is another name for an operating system?

Ans- OS is another name of the operating system.

Q3) Which is an example of a mobile operating system?

Ans- Android, iOS, Windows Mobile and Symbian.

What did you learn today?

So, friends, modern knowledge is very important. It is therefore very important for a particular student. Now if this question comes to the test, what is the operating system and the functions of the operating system, then you can easily answer it.

By the way, according to me, the OS is bringing new features very quickly, like talking about Windows 10 itself.

Because it was originally said that the OS is the heart of a computer. If you want to ask any questions, just write to the comment box below and if you would like to offer any suggestions, please do so. If you have not yet subscribed to our blog, sign up for free.

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